The Infinitive
A. Adverbial
1. Purpose
2. Result
3. Time
4. Cause
5. Means
6. Complementary
to, in order that, for the purpose of
so that, so as to, with the result that
after, while, before
.
by ... doing
(Supplementary)
B. Subtantival Uses
7. Subject
8. Direct Object
9. Indirect Object
10. Appositional
11. Epexegetical
.
.
.
namely
.

The infinitive is an indeclinable verbal noun. As such it participates in some of the features of the verb and some of the noun. Like a verb, the infinitive has tense and voice, but not person or mood. Its number is always singular. Like the oblique moods (i.e., nonindicative moods), the infinitive is normally negatived by me or ou. Like a noun, the infinitive can have many of the case functions that an ordinary noun can have. Although technically infinitives do not have gender, frequently the neuter singular article is attached to them. [See Wallace for a discussion of the various structures used with the different semantic categories of the infinitive.]

A. Adverbial Uses

1. Purpose [to, in order to, for the purpose of]

2. Result [so that, so as to, with the result that]

3. Time

4. Cause

5. Means [by ... doing]

6. Complementary (Supplementary)

B. Substantival Uses

7. Subject

8. Direct Object

9. Indirect Discourse

10. Appositional [namely]

11. Epexegetical


The Participle
A. Adjectival Participles
1. Adjectival Proper
2. Substantival
(Dependent)
(Independent)
B. Verbal Participles
3. Adverbial
(Circumstantial)
a. Temporal
b. Manner
c. Means
d. Cause
e. Condition
f. Concession
g. Purpose (Telic)
h. Result
after, when
.
by means of
because
if
although
in order that
with the result of
4. Attendant Circumstance
5. Periphrastic
6. Redundant (Pleonastic)
7. Imperatival
8. Genitive Absolute

The participle is a declinable verbal adjective. It derives from its verbal nature tense and voice; from its adjectival nature, gender, number and case. Like the infinitive, the participle's verbal nature is normally seen in a dependent manner. That is, it is normally adverbial (in a broad sense) rather than functioning independently as a verb. Its adjectival side comes out just as strongly as a dependent or modifying adjective [Exegesis requires that you master the participle. Be sure to read Wallace for his fuller discussions and especially his exegetical examples.]

A. Adjectival Participles

This category involves both the dependent and independent adjectival participles (i.e., both the adjectival proper and substantival). For a structural clue, the student should note the article. If it stands before a participle and functions as a modifying article (normal use), then that participle must be adjectival. If the participle does not have the article, it may be adjectival.

1. Adjectival Proper (Dependent)

2. Substantival (Independent)

B. Verbal Participles

The first four categories are dependent verbal participles, example seven is independent verbal participle, and the genitive absolute is the last example.

3. Adverbial (Circumstantial)

4. Attendant Circumstance

5. Periphrastic

Periphrastics
Verb
Participle
Meaning
Present
Present
Present
Imperfect
Present
Imperfect
Future
Present
Future
Present
Perfect
Perfect
Imperfect
Perfect
Pluperfect

6. Redundant (Pleonastic)

7. Independent Verbal Participle as Imperative (Imperatival)

8. Genitive Absolute


Edition: Feb 10,2009