13:1 Let brotherly love continue.
13:2 Don't forget to show hospitality to strangers, for in doing so,
some have entertained angels without knowing it.
13:3 Remember those who are in bonds, as bound with them;
and those who are ill-treated, since you are also in the body.
Abstain from Covetousness
13:4 Let marriage be held in honor among all, and let the bed be
but God will judge the sexually immoral and adulterers.
13:5 Be free from the love of money, content with such things as you
have, for he has said,
"I will in no way leave you, neither will I in any way forsake
13:6 So that with good courage we say,
"The Lord is my helper. I will not fear. What can man do to
Imitate your leaders
and focus on right teachings
13:7 Remember your leaders, men who spoke to you the word of God,
and considering the results of their conduct, imitate their faith.
13:8 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever.
13:9 Don't be carried away by various and strange teachings,
for it is good that the heart be established by grace, not by food,
through which those who were so occupied were not benefited.
Endure through persecutions
13:10 We have an altar from which those who serve the holy
no right to eat.
13:11 For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into
the holy place
by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the
13:12 Therefore Jesus also,
that he might sanctify the people through his own blood, suffered
of the gate.
13:13 Let us therefore go forth to him outside of the camp, bearing
13:14 For we don't have here an enduring city, but we seek that
is to come.
13:15 Through him, then, let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to
, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to his name.
Share and Submit
13:16 But don't forget to be doing good and sharing,
for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.
13:17 Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they watch on behalf
of your souls,
as those who will give account, that they may do this with joy,
and not with groaning, for that would be unprofitable for you.
13:18 Pray for us, for we are persuaded that we have a good
desiring to live honorably in all things.
13:19 I strongly urge you to do this, that I may be restored to
13:20 Now may the God of peace,
who brought again from the dead the great shepherd of the sheep
with the blood of an eternal covenant, our Lord Jesus,
13:21 make you complete in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is well pleasing in his sight,
to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
13:22 But I exhort you, brothers, endure the word of exhortation,
have written to you in few words.
13:23 Know that our brother Timothy has been freed, with whom, if he
comes shortly, I will see you.
13:24 Greet all of your leaders and all the saints. The Italians
13:25 Grace be with you all. Amen.
vs 1-3 What hinders you from experiencing a close, empathetic
with other Christians, whom you may only consider as strangers now?
vs 4 What steps do you recommend to avoid inappropriate
with the opposite sex?
vs 5 How might you measure a person's contentment?
Greed is a common motivation to be ambitious in life,
but how might it have it's real root in "fear"?
Should a Christian give up all his secular ambitions
and learn to be content with what he has rather than striving for
vs 7 What does it mean "to consider the outcome of their lives"?
For example, Jesus was shamefully tortured to death and his
Paul suffered a great deal in life and had his head cut off at the
What else about their lives is important to consider?
Name an example of faith in the Bible that you would like to
vs 9 What may constitute a "strange teaching"?
vs 13 What does it mean "to go outside the camp"?
How might this be particularly significant if you were a Jew
vs 16 What kinds of things do we have available to share?
vs 17 Do you have any over you that you would consider a leader?
What are the limits to his realm of authority?
What are some things that your leaders have told you to do?
vs 18-21 How would you categorize Paul's prayer requests?
Are these the kind of things you would ask people to pray for?
vs 1-3 Brotherly love, hospitality and empathy. Loving other
is the primary mark of a true believer.
vs 4-6 The most blatant violation of honoring marriage in
Christian community is the adulterous practice of remarriage after
But there are also subtle ways in which marriage is not honored.
relationships can develop between the sexes outside of the context
like in the name of "counseling". And with more women in the
affairs on the job can be common. But these grow only if one
attitude towards their spouse.
Covetousness is wanted what someone else has. Adultery is a
of covetousness. Christians must learn to be content, whether it's
one's marriage partner or one's finances. Paul writes:
"Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in
state I am, therewith to be content. I know both how to be
I know how to abound: every where and in all things I am
to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need."Php
vs 7 There seem to be few leaders today worth following. But
fact makes the Biblical leaders - Jesus and the apostles - to be the
examples to follow. The idea of imitating Christ or even Paul, for
matter, is sometimes discouraged in the Christian community, as
as that may sound. For often Christians are treated as capable in
doing menial tasks as a cog in the big machine we call the church.
with their spiritual gifts are often treated contemptuously in this
while the institution is glorified. Often this attitude is
institutional leaders, who seemingly make themselves out to be the
simply because of their position, while treating people under them
contempt, not allowing them to speak or practice their spiritual
Strangely enough it seems to have evaded them that this was the same
of the religious leaders who were the enemies of Christ.
What would the Christian community look like if, instead of
satisfied with attending a church service, each Christian actually
to live like Christ or like the apostle Paul?
vs 8 The God of the Old Testament is the same as the God
New. The Santa Claus figure that many modern Christians call
not the Jesus of the Bible. It is the Jesus of the Bible that
The Jesus of popular Christianty has changed.
vs 9 "Strange Teachings" in this case had to do with
weird applications concerning ceremonial foods which were not
with the principles of the Bible.
Heb 13:1 Keep on loving each other as brothers.
This is perhaps the most significant command in the New Testament.
Jesus said, "A new command I
you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one
another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if
love one another."John
13:34,35 John writes,
is the message you heard from the beginning: We should love one
and he writes of such being a measure of one's salvation status
"This is how we know who the
children of God are and who the children of the devil are: Anyone
does not do what is right is not a child of God; nor is anyone who
not love his brother."1John
But what practically is implied by this verse is first of all that
must maintain contact with fellow Christians. That is, "Let us not give up meeting
as some are in the habit of doing, but let us encourage one
another"Heb 10:25 Do you have as
commitment to the Christian community as to your own family? If not
then perhaps you don't really believe the Christian community is
family. In fact Someone told Jesus, "Your mother and brothers are standing
outside, wanting to speak to you." He replied to him, "Who is my
mother, and who are my brothers?" Pointing to his disciples, he
"Here are my mother and my brothers. For whoever does the will of
Father in heaven is my brother and sister and mother." Mt 12:47-50
"Therefore, as we have
opportunity, let us do good to all people, especially to those who
belong to the family of believers." Gal 6:10
Heb 13:2 Do not forget to entertain strangers,
for by so doing some people have entertained angels without
There are a number of incidents in the Bible where angels appear in
human form. For example in Genesis 18 Abraham was visited by angels
human form and served them a meal. We learned previously, "Are not all angels ministering
spirits sent to serve those who will inherit salvation?"Heb 1:14 There are those
make too much of alleged visions of angels. "Do not let anyone who delights in
false humility and the worship of angels disqualify you for the
Such a person goes into great detail about what he has seen, and
unspiritual mind puffs him up with idle notions." Col 2:18 Typical among false
visions are that of Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormons. But angels
are present and active in serving the elect.
More generally concerning hospitality, even the law of Moses
to take care of strangers. Lev
19:34 "The alien
living with you must be
treated as one of your native-born. Love him as yourself, for you
aliens in Egypt. I am the LORD your God." The Christian
community is not to be Xenophobic, as many societies are
the East. In fact the word "entertain strangers" here is the Greek
"philoxenia", which is to like strangers. In other words, be friendly. Elsewhere
is written, "Share with God’s
people who are in need. Practice hospitality." Rom 12:13
Heb 13:3 Remember those in prison as if you
were their fellow prisoners, and those who are mistreated as if
yourselves were suffering.
And these Christians were not strangers to this concept, "Sometimes you were publicly
insult and persecution; at other times you stood side by side with
those who were so treated. You sympathized with those in prison
joyfully accepted the confiscation of your property, because you
that you yourselves had better and lasting possessions."Heb 10:33,34
Both this and the previous verse have to do with empathy - feeling
others who are not in your circumstances. But the Christian life
beyond mere feelings. Story tells of a woman who watch Les
comes out of a theatre in tears but pays no mind to a beggar who
for money. A Christians fruitfulness is measured by actions. "What good is it, my brothers, if
man claims to have faith but has no deeds? Can such faith save
him? Suppose a brother or sister is without clothes and
food. If one of you says to him, "Go,
and well fed," but does nothing about
his physical needs, what good is it? In the same way, faith by
if it is not accompanied by action, is dead." Jam 2:14-17
Also with regards to "prison" here, he doesn't really have in mind
normally constitutes "prison ministry" today. He's talking about
Christians who have gone to prison because of their faith. When Paul
says, "Are they servants of
Christ? (I am out of my mind to talk like this.) I am more. I have
worked much harder, been
prison more frequently, been flogged more severely, and
exposed to death again and again."2Cor 11:23, he's not saying he
to prison to pay for evil deeds. "If
as a murderer or thief or any other kind
of criminal, or even as a meddler. However, if you suffer as a
Christian, do not be ashamed, but praise God that you bear that
name." 1Peter 4:14,15
This is the sense in
which the author is speaking. There are those who suffer as a result
sin, but then there are those who are mistreated.
Today this is particularly the case for Christians living in
non-Christians cultures. In fact in the case of Islamic countries
of the tenets of Islam is to treat Christians as second class
Mistreatment of Christians is the West is minor in comparison. So
consider your priorities.
Heb 13:4Marriage should be honored by all,
the marriage bed kept pure, for God will judge the adulterer and
the sexually immoral.
The New Testament has a great deal to say about adultery and sexual
"It is God’s will that you should
sanctified: that you should avoid sexual immorality; that each
should learn to control his own body in a way that is holy and
honorable, not in passionate lust like the heathen, who do not
God; and that in this matter no one should wrong his brother or
advantage of him. The Lord will punish men for all such sins, as
have already told you and warned you. For God did not call us to
impure, but to live a holy life. Therefore, he who rejects this
instruction does not reject man but God, who gives you his Holy
"Do you not know that the
will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived: Neither
sexually immoral nor idolaters nor adulterers nor male
homosexual offenders nor thieves nor the greedy nor
slanderers nor swindlers will inherit the kingdom of God."1Cor 6:9,10
"Anyone who divorces his wife
marries another woman commits adultery against her. And if she
her husband and marries another man, she commits adultery." Mk 10:11,12
"I tell you that anyone
looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with
his heart."Mt 5:28
woman Jezebel, who calls
herself a prophetess. By her teaching she misleads my servants
sexual immorality and the eating of food sacrificed to idols. I
given her time to repent of her immorality, but she is
unwilling. So I
will cast her on a bed of suffering, and I will make those who
adultery with her suffer intensely, unless they repent of her
will strike her children dead. Then all the churches will know
am he who searches hearts and minds, and I will repay each of
according to your deeds." Rev
Heb 13:5,6Keep your lives free from the love
money and be content with what you have, because God has said,
will I leave you; never will I forsake you." So we say with
"The Lord is my helper; I will not be afraid. What can man do to
A person who loves money is a person who is discontent. Learn
contentment. Paul says, "I have
learned to be content whatever the circumstances."Php 4:11:b "Godliness with contentment is great
gain. For we brought nothing into the world, and we can take
out of it. But if we have food and clothing, we will be content
that. People who want to get rich fall into temptation and a trap
into many foolish and harmful desires that plunge men into ruin
destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil.
people, eager for money, have wandered from the faith and pierced
themselves with many griefs."1Tim
Discontentment can lead to all kinds of sin, like greed and
covetousness, resulting in theft, lying and murder. Thus John the
Baptist advised the soldiers, "Don’t
be content with your pay."Lk
3:14 And though we may living in a consumer oriented
consider that all those advertisements that say that you can save
by buying their product fail to mention that you can save 100% by
buying it at all. The more you have, the more you have to invest in
maintenance. "Do not store up
yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy, and
thieves break in and steal. But store up for yourselves treasures
heaven, where moth and rust do not destroy, and where thieves do
break in and steal. For where your treasure is, there your heart
be also."Mt 6:19-21
Heb 13:7,8Remember your leaders, who spoke
word of God to you. Consider the outcome of their way of life and
imitate their faith. Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today
For example Paul writes, "Follow
example, as I follow the example of Christ."1Cor 11:1 And in particular as a
point of application the context of which he says this is, "Do not cause anyone to stumble,
whether Jews, Greeks or the church of God— even as I try to please
everybody in every way. For I am not seeking my own good but the
of many, so that they may be saved." 1Cor 12: 32,33
Ironically the ones who often fail to follow the examples of their
leaders are those who end up in leadership themselves. For example
the last supper Jesus washed the disciples feet and said, "I have set you an example that
should do as I have done for you." John 13:15 Yet when given the
opportunity to serve the neglected widows the Twelve gathered all the disciples
together and said, "It would not be right for us to neglect the
ministry of the word of God in order to wait on tables."Acts 6:2 And rather assigned
men who turned out to be capable of doing both. In his speech the
Ephesian elders Paul said, "You
know that these hands of mine have supplied my own needs and
the needs of my companions. In everything I did, I showed you that
this kind of hard work we must help the weak, remembering the
Lord Jesus himself said: ‘It is more blessed to give than to
receive.’"Acts 20:34,35 Yet few
Christian leaders have since followed his example despite this
potentially hindering the gospel of Christ, as Paul said, "If others have this right of
from you, shouldn’t we have it all the more? But we did not use
right. On the contrary, we put up with anything rather than hinder
gospel of Christ." 1Cor
What kind of faith does Christian leadership display today? "For you yourselves know how you
to follow our example. We were not idle when we were with you, nor
we eat anyone’s food without paying for it. On the contrary, we
night and day, laboring and toiling so that we would not be a
any of you." 2Th 3:7,8
Paul encouraged his disciples to set the example. To Timothy he
says, "Don’t let anyone look
down on you
because you are young, but set an example for the believers in
in life, in love, in faith and in purity" 1Tim 4:12 And to Titus, "encourage the young men to be
self-controlled. In everything set them an example by doing what
good. In your teaching show integrity, seriousness and soundness
speech that cannot be condemned, so that those who oppose you may
ashamed because they have nothing bad to say about us." Titus 2:7,8
Peter says of unjustified suffering, "How is it to your credit if you
receive a beating for doing wrong and endure it? But if you suffer
doing good and you endure it, this is commendable before God. To
you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an
example, that you should follow in his steps." 1Peter 2:20,21
Heb 13:9,10Do not be carried away by all kinds
strange teachings. It is good for our hearts to be strengthened by
grace, not by ceremonial foods, which are of no value to those who
them.We have an
from which those who minister at the tabernacle have no right to
Strange doctrines often involve some kind of ceremony. Sacramental
theology is strange doctrine, such as the Catholic doctrine deifying
the eucharist, as are things like "holy laughter" of Charismatism,
using the symbol of the cross as a kind of luck charm, and the
like. As for ceremonial foods,
"food does not bring us near to God; we are no worse if we do not
and no better if we do." 1Cor
Paul instructs Timothy, "Have
nothing to do with godless myths and old wives’ tales; rather,
yourself to be godly." 1Tim
4:7 "The Spirit
clearly says that in later
times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving spirits and
things taught by demons. Such teachings come through hypocritical
liars, whose consciences have been seared as with a hot iron. They
forbid people to marry and order them to abstain from certain
which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who
and who know the truth."1Tim
What does it mean for one's heart to be strengthened by grace in
contrast of that by food? The latter is sort of an occultic idea
the food contains some kind of magic in it, and thus the object of
one's faith is the food. When Popeye got into difficulty he did not
look to God. He looked to his spinach! What do you look to when you
face difficultly. How else would you end this sentence:
to be strengthened by grace, not by
Drugs? Money? Sex? Food? Entertainment?
Heb 13:11-13The high priest carries the blood
animals into the Most Holy Place as a sin offering, but the bodies
burned outside the camp. And so Jesus also suffered outside
city gate to make the people holy through his own blood. Let
then, go to him outside the camp, bearing the disgrace he bore.
Likewise there's the analogy of the scapegoat mentioned in Leviticus
16. For on the day of atonement, now Yom Kippur, the priest would
two goats. One would be sacrificed and the other kept alive but led
outside the camp into the desert representing sin being taken away.
Just as with Christ, so also the Christian should experience this
outcasting. The Hebrew Christians would have particularly been able
relate with this as they had been largely driven out of Israel. But
here the author is saying, "That's OK". Consider Moses. He regarded disgrace for the sake
Christ as of greater value than the treasures of Egypt, because he
looking ahead to his reward.Heb
To quote a few places in the New Testament which speak along these
"No one who has left home or
or brothers or parents or children for the sake of the kingdom of
will fail to receive many times as much in this age and, in the
come, eternal life." Luke
"Do not be yoked together with
unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in
Or what fellowship can light have with darkness? What harmony is
between Christ and Belial? What does a believer have in common
unbeliever?" 2Cor 6:14,15
"Therefore come out from
them and be separate", says the Lord. 2Cor 6:17a
Heb 13:14For here we do not have an enduring
city, but we are looking for the city that is to come.
Again an allusion back to chapter 11, like Abraham, "he was looking forward to the city
with foundations, whose architect and builder is God."Heb 11:10 and the others, "they admitted that they were
and strangers on earth. If they had been thinking of the country
had left, they would have had opportunity to return. Instead, they
longing for a better country— a heavenly one. Therefore God is not
ashamed to be called their God, for he has prepared a city for
them." Heb 11:13b-16
Or consider the analogy of Sarah versus Hagar. "Now Hagar stands for Mount Sinai in
Arabia and corresponds to the present city of Jerusalem, because
in slavery with her children. But the Jerusalem that is above is
and she is our mother. .. Now you, brothers, like Isaac, are
of promise. At that time the son born in the ordinary way
the son born by the power of the Spirit. It is the same now." Gal 4:25-26,28-29
As for the New Jerusalem, Jesus said in Rev 3:12a, "Him who overcomes
I will make a pillar in the temple of my God. Never again will he
it. I will write on him the name of my God and the name of the
my God, the new Jerusalem, which is coming down out of heaven from
God" and John prophecied in Rev
21:1-4Then I saw a
heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth
passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City,
new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a
beautifully dressed for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from
throne saying, "Now the dwelling
God is with men, and he will live with them. They will be his
and God himself will be with them and be their God. He will wipe
tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or
or pain, for the old order of things has passed away."
Heb 13:15Through Jesus, therefore, let us
continually offer to God a sacrifice of praise— the fruit of lips
confess his name.
Among other things expressions of thankfulness are a form of praise.
Remember the ten lepers of Luke 17. After being cleansed only one
returned to. "One of them, when
saw he was healed, came back, praising
God in a loud voice. He threw himself at Jesus’ feet and
thanked him— and
he was a
107 of the redeemed, "They
cried to the LORD in their
trouble, and he saved them from their distress. He sent forth his
and healed them; he rescued them from the grave. Let them give
to the LORD for his unfailing love and his wonderful deeds for
them sacrifice thank offerings and tell of his works with songs of
joy." Ps 107 19-22
"Sacrifice thank offerings to
fulfill your vows to the Most High, and call upon me in the day of
trouble; I will deliver you, and you will honor me."Ps 50:14,15
What can you thank God for today? Do so.
Heb 13:16 And do not forget to do good and to
share with others, for with such sacrifices God is pleased.
Just as giving thanks is a form of sacrifice, there are many other
in which we offer sacrifices to God today. "I urge you, brothers, in view of
God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as living sacrifices, holy and
pleasing to God— this is your spiritual act of worship. Do not
any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the
renewing of your mind."Rom
Doing good and sharing with others are examples. For Christ "gave himself for us to redeem us
all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his
own, eager to do what is good." Titus
and "I want you
to stress these things, so that those who have trusted in God may
careful to devote themselves to doing what is good. These things
excellent and profitable for everyone." Titus 3:1 For "Our people must learn to devote
themselves to doing what is good, in order that they may provide
daily necessities and not live unproductive lives."Titus
Now in particular as a practical matter concerning living productive
lives, one must have resources in order to share with others.
Paul advised the Ephesian elders,
"You yourselves know that these hands of mine have supplied my own
needs and the needs of my companions. In everything I did, I
that by this kind of hard work we must help the weak, remembering
words the Lord Jesus himself said: ‘It is more blessed to give
receive.’" Acts 20:34,35
Therefore rather than receive payment for his ministry Paul worked
a living so that, among other things, he may practice generosity.
to the Ephesians he says, "He
has been stealing must steal no longer, but must work, doing
useful with his own hands, that he may have something to share
those in need." Eph 4:28
And concerning the rich Paul says to Timothy, "Command them to do good, to be rich in
good deeds, and to be generous and willing to share."1Tim 6:18
Heb 13:17 Obey your leaders and submit to
authority. They keep watch over you as men who must give an
Obey them so that their work will be a joy, not a burden, for that
would be of no advantage to you.
This should be the case both with regards to religious and secular
authority. "Remind the people
be subject to rulers and authorities, to be obedient, to be ready
whatever is good"Titus
3:1 "Everyone must
submit himself to the
governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which
has established. The authorities that exist have been established
God."Rom 13:1 "Submit yourselves for the Lord’s
to every authority instituted among men" 1Peter 2:13 Of course all human
authority only has a limited realm of authority outside of which it
not legitimate authority. But within it's God-given limits, one must
If you've been in a position of authority you know that it is a joy
have those under you function with a spirit of compliance and
cooperation. Those characteristically compliant have an advantage.
they would tend be looked upon with favor if some need arises. Do
in authority over you, be they parents, government officials, your
employer, or religious authority have joy in watching over you? How
you improve on that?
Heb 13:18,19 Pray for us. We are sure that we
clear conscience and desire to live honorably in every way. I
particularly urge you to pray so that I may be restored to you
While our conscience is not a perfect guide into what is good, as
says, "My conscience is clear,
that does not make me innocent."1Cor 4:4, yet it is important to try
and maintain a good conscience, "holding
and a good conscience."
1Tim 1:19"The goal
this command is love,
which comes from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere
faith."1Tim 1:5"Therefore, it is necessary to
to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but
because of conscience." Rom
And when it comes to questionable areas, let you conscience be your
guide. Examples are given in Romans 14 and 1Corinthians chapters 8
10 concerning eating meats which may have been sacrificed to idols.
principle being - don't violate your own conscience and avoid
the conscience of another.
"desire to live honorably" is more literally "will to live well".
not simply a desire, it's an intention. "For the grace of God that brings
salvation has appeared to all men.teaches us to say "No" to
and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and
lives in this present age, while we wait for the blessed hope— the
glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ"Titus 2:11-13
But to some degree this all depends on prayer. This is a mystery,
exactly being prayed for affects one's spiritual life, but it does.
take time to pray for someone else now. Even the apostle Paul says,
"Brothers, pray for us."1Th
5:25"And pray for us, too, that God may
open a door for our message"
brothers, pray for us that the message of the Lord may spread
and be honored, just as it was with you." 2Thess 3:1
Heb 13:20,21May the God of peace, who through
blood of the eternal covenant brought back from the dead our Lord
Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep, equip you with everything
for doing his will, and may he work in us what is pleasing to him,
through Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
And "Praise be to the God and
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us in the
realms with every spiritual blessing in Christ."Eph 1:3 Part of that blessing is
equipping we obtain from Christian fellowship. For "it was he who gave some to be
apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to
pastors and teachers, to prepare God’s people for works of
that the body of Christ may be built up until we all reach unity
faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature,
attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ."Eph 4:11-13 Also with
material resources Paul says of the generous, "God is able to make all grace abound
to you, so that in all things at all times, having all that you
you will abound in every good work. ... You will be made rich in
way so that you can be generous on every occasion, and through us
generosity will result in thanksgiving to God." 2Cor 9:8,11
Now "continue to work out your
salvation with fear and trembling, for it is God who works
to will and to act according to his good purpose." Php 2:12a-13
Heb 13:22-25Brothers, I urge you to bear with
word of exhortation, for I have written you only a short letter. I
you to know that our brother Timothy has been released. If he
soon, I will come with him to see you. Greet all your leaders and
God’s people. Those from Italy send you their greetings. Grace be
Much as some would characterize Hebrews as a long letter, in fact it
not nearly as long as one intended. For not only are there more
subjects which need to be covered, but the author also desires to
elaborate upon these. For example he previously said, "we cannot discuss these things in
detail now."Heb 9:5b
and "We have much to say about
this"Heb 5:11 and
"I do not have time to tell
Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, David, Samuel and the prophets" Heb 11:32and so forth.
Interesting that he mentioned Timothy, Paul's disciple and coworker.
One wonders whether the author was in fact Paul, who for example
to Philemon, "Paul, a prisoner
Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother". Phm 1:1 And often Paul sends
Timothy. "I hope in the
Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you soon" Php 2:19 And there are a number
other indicators, including the quote of Hab 2:4 quoted in Heb
10:38 of which Paul also quotes
in Rom 1:17 and Gal 3:11. Pauline Authorship is
oldest and widest held, (Clement of Alexandria and Origin were of
opinion). Paul is the
most likely author. But no one can say for sure.
"Greet your leaders" indicates that the epistle was intended to be
by all and not simply by the institutional leadership. The Bible
be read by all, and not simply filtered through the leadership who
end up putting some dogmatic spin on it without the church realizing
it. "All God's people" in that the family of God is not limited to
church, but is composed of all believers. Thus this letter is
throughout the Christian community.