31 When he had gone out, Jesus said,
"Now the Son of Man has been glorified, and God has been glorified in him.
32 If God has been glorified in him, God will also glorify him in himself,
and he will glorify him immediately.
36 Simon Peter said to him, "Lord, where are you going?"
"Where I am going, you can’t follow now, but you will follow afterwards."
37 Peter said to him, "Lord, why can’t I follow you now?
I will lay down my life for you."
38 Jesus answered him,
"Will you lay down your life for me? Most assuredly I tell you,
the rooster won’t crow until you have denied me three times.
vs 23 The disciple of who it speaks here is probably John himself, though in humility he doesn't name himself as he had a position of honor with the Lord more so than the others. And so it is written, "Let another praise you, and not your own mouth; someone else, and not your own lips." Proverbs 27:2
vs 26 To fulfill the prophecy ‘He who eats bread with me has lifted up his heel against me.’ Jesus quite literally gave him his bread to eat symbolizing the artificial and duplicitous fellowship Judas represented in the Christian community.
vs 27-30 Jesus cut him loose to carry out his evil plans. One is reminded of Romans 1:28 "Even as they refused to have God in their knowledge, God gave them up to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not fitting." God does not condone such behavior, but if people are intent on doing evil, he does give them over to it at times. Jesus had given him every opportunity to repent in exposing his impending betrayal yet willfully Judas went ahead with his plans. Yet Jesus appeared to keep this rather a private matter, not exposing him so publically. Though it is not clear why. I would imagine that Judas in his state of mind he wasn't even paying attention. He no longer was listening to Jesus. And that is what happens when people disrepect you. They don't listen, or they only hear what they want to hear. Yet the others still did not recognize Judas for what he was. "he went out and it was night" What more can be said.
vs 31-32 "has been" is not quite accurate. The aorist is used which expresses a punctual idea. At the point that Judas left was the Son glorified. For his leaving represented the purification of the body of Christ which was the allegorical subject of the feet washing. Other allegorical equivalents may be the purifying of the assembly through his atoning sacrifice or the revelation of the true Assembly of believers in the end when the wheat and chaff (or sheep and goats) are separated. "Glorifying him in himself" I think refers to his ascension into heaven which is shortly to take place, though over a month away.
vs 33-35 The next few Chapters are a message to the disciples preparing them for his departure. The first and primary command is to love one another following Christ's example. But what was Christ's example of love? For Christ called his disciples to walk with him on a road of hardships in which they too will be despised and persecuted even to the death. They endured sacrifices and much personal loss. Christ did not make their lives comfortable. And then he left them to carry out their own ministry. He gave them a mission to accomplish. So also we are to do the same for those brethren we love. This is not love from the world's perspective. Love from the world's perspective is to give people what they want. Love from God's perspective is to give people what they need. Another way he loved was by teaching them, and not just in words. He developed them in maturity till they were ready to take on responsibilities and walk on their own.
vs 36-38 Where Christ goes we will follow. But everything in its time. Peter thought he was further along in his commitment to Christ and in his regeneration than he actually was. And people often fall prey to the Sophomore effect when they've learned some and think they know more than they actually do. For education is also a matter of application and as they say "a little knowledge is a dangerous thing". Peter, though speaking confidently, has yet to learn what it means to lay down his life. So also Christians may speak confidently of their supposed convictions, but a man's real convictions are revealed by his applications.