翻译: English 中文 Big5

失落的儿子

路加福音 15:11-32 耶稣又说:“一个人有两个儿子。

小儿子

小儿子对父亲说:‘父亲,请你把我应得的家业分给我。’他父亲就把产业分给他们。过了不多几日,小儿子就把他一切所有的,都收拾起来,往远方去了。在那里任意放荡,浪费赀财。既耗尽了一切所有的,又遇着那地方大遭饥荒,就穷苦起来。于是去投靠那地方的一个人,那人打发他到田里去放猪。他恨不得拿猪所吃的豆荚充饥。也没有人给他。他醒悟过来,就说:‘我父亲有多少的雇工,口粮有余,我倒在这里饿死吗?我要起来,到我父亲那里去,向他说:父亲,我得罪了天,又得罪了你。从今以后,我不配称为你的儿子,把我当作一个雇工吧。’于是起来往他父亲那里去。

父亲

相离还远,他父亲看见,就动了慈心,跑去抱着他的颈项,连连与他亲嘴。儿子说:‘父亲,我得罪了天,又得罪了你。从今以后,我不配称为你的儿子。’父亲却吩咐仆人说:‘把那上好的袍子快拿出来给他穿,把戒指戴在他指头上,把鞋穿在他脚上,
把那肥牛犊牵来宰了,我们可以吃喝快乐。因为我这个儿子是死而复活,失而又得的。’他们就快乐起来。

大儿子

那时,大儿子正在田里。他回来离家不远,听见作乐跳舞的声音。便叫过一个仆人来,问是什么事。仆人说:‘你兄弟来了。你父亲因为得他无灾无病地回来,把肥牛犊宰了。’大儿子却生气,不肯进去。他父亲就出来劝他。他对父亲说:‘我服事你这多年,从来没有违背过你的命。你并没有给我一只山羊羔,叫我和朋友一同快乐。但你这个儿子,和娼妓吞尽了你的产业,他一来了,你倒为他宰了肥牛犊!’父亲对他说:‘儿啊,你常和我同在,我一切所有的,都是你的。只是你这个兄弟是死而复活,失而又得的,所以我们理当欢喜快乐。’


问题讨论

在他离开的时候,小儿子对他父亲的态度是什么?
他代表现实生活中的哪些人?
是什么使他醒悟过来?
想一想圣经里还有什么地方说到艰难的处境有类似的效果?
在你的生活中是不是有类似的事使你醒悟过来?
你觉得小儿子对他父亲的期望是什么?
你如何概括这位父亲的反应?
大儿子的行为与他父亲的灵是否一致?
他代表谁?


注释

这是路加福音第十五章里“失落”系列中最后一个寓言。其中第一个说的是迷失的羊,接下来说的是失落的钱币,之后就是失落的儿子。这再一次说到神对悔改的罪人的同情。而这个寓言独特的地方在于它把焦点更加汇聚在悔改的过程上。在头两个寓言里,人们感受不到迷失的羊的态度,也感受不到失落的钱币的态度。在头两个寓言里有牧人和妇人寻找他们所失落的。但在这里,这位父亲没有主动地去寻找他的儿子。而这个儿子在陷入困境的时候想到了父亲的供给,因而回头。悔改包括与在背后作工的神合作。

失落的儿子

这个失落的儿子在罪中死了,因而是真正地失落了。他向他的父亲索要遗产,把他父亲当作是已死的。同样,在那个时候他的父亲把他也当作是已死的。失落的儿子代表以色列迷失的羊,虽然从肉体上说他们是亚伯拉罕的子孙,但从灵上说他们不是他的子孙。因为亚伯拉罕有两个儿子——以撒和以实玛利。一个是按着应许生的,一个是按着血气生的。(见加拉太书)同样,在基督徒中,有些人虽然称自己是神的儿子,但他们的行为却不像是神的儿子,他们只在名义上是神的儿子。
“从此就显出谁是神的儿女,谁是魔鬼的儿女:凡不行义的就不属神,不爱弟兄的也是如此。” 约翰一书3:10
失落的儿子与以色列国的历史无不相同,他们虽被称为“受捡选的民”,但却周期性地在很长的时间里把神的产业浪费在他们自己罪性的欲望里。于是神带领他们走过“旷野”,使他们谦卑,领他们悔改。

失落的儿子也有这个“旷野”的经历——去放猪——这使得他悔改。旷野的经历给人带来悔改所必需的谦卑。甚至耶稣也代替我们,被带到旷野去受魔鬼的试探。他对魔鬼的回答之一引用的就是申命记里关于以色列人的旷野的经历的经文:他苦炼你,任你饥饿,将你和你列祖所不认识的吗哪赐给你吃,使你知道,人活着不是单靠食物,乃是靠耶和华口里所出的一切话。” 申命记8:3谦卑是所有品质中最重要的。因为谦卑总能把人带回到神那里。然而,注意到他悔改的动机并不一定总是可嘉的,而是自私的。但无论如何,这是接受神。因为悔改并非是彻底无罪的,而只是有足够的谦卑,能够认识到自己的罪,以及罪的害处。

父亲

父亲无疑对他的儿子很愤怒,但在他悔改时,还是愿意与他和好。他没有在心中存着苦毒。和好是彻底的。他父亲公开地,快乐地承认他儿子的地位,好像他从来没有犯罪一样。这正是新约里神的态度:“我不再记念他们的罪愆和他们的过犯。” 希伯来书10:17.

大儿子

大儿子代表的是谁则有些费解。如果他代表的是那些已经得到救赎的——以色列中的“余剩”的话,他的行为与他父亲欢迎他兄弟的态度却不一致。他心里对他兄弟怀着苦毒和怨恨。“凡不行义的就不属神,不爱弟兄的也是如此。”“凡恨他弟兄的就是杀人的,你们晓得凡杀人的没有永生存在他里面。”约翰一书3:10,15 小儿子离家出走固然不对,但大儿子对他的兄弟没有爱。

所以我认为大儿子代表法利赛人之类的人,虽人他们觉得按自己的行为来说他们是“义人”,但从他们不愿饶恕的态度上讲其实是不义的。事实上,这整个“失落”系列是这样在路加福音第十五章里开始的: 众税吏和罪人,都挨近耶稣要听他讲道。法利赛人和文士私下议论说:“这个人接待罪人,又同他们吃饭。” 路加福音15:1,2

名义上的基督徒有两种——无法的和墨守律法的。(其实有三种——但我认为“自由派”的人太偏异了,已不能算作“基督徒”了)一般说来,无法的基督徒愿意接受基督为救主,但不愿接受他为主,墨守律法愿意接受基督为主,但不愿接受基督为救主。当然,他们也许会在言语上接受,但行为却是另一个样子。因为我们的行为所表现出的是我们真实的信仰。


Rap

A man had two sons and the younger one
Wanted just to have some fun
So he asked his father to give him his share
Of his estate as it seemed fair.
Then he went away and spent all he had
On wild living being really bad
But suddenly a famine came on the land
For which he wasn't prepared beforehand
He got a job feeding swine
And though he was used to drinking wine
He wanted to eat along with the pigs
But he got nothing, no wheat or figs
Then he finally came to his senses
After he considered his consequences
"My father's workers have food to spare,
I'm starving to death while I'm working here.
I'll go back to my father and say this too:
I've sinned against heaven and against you.
I'm not worthy to be called your son
For I lost that right just to have some fun.
Make me like one of your hired men."
Then he got up and went home again.

But while he was still a long way away
His father saw him, the son gone astray
He was filled with compassion and ran to meet him
He'd been watching and waiting for the whole interim.
He gave him a hug and then he kissed him
It was quite apparent that he had missed him
The son said, "I have sinned against heaven and against you.
I can't be your son after what you've been through."
But the father said, "Bring the robe, the one that is best
For this is my son and not just some guest.
Put a ring on his hand and sandals on his feet.
Killed the fattened calf and lets eat some meat.
Let's celebrate and have a feast
For my son is alive after being deceased.
Before he was lost, but now he is found.
Let's celebrate and let joy abound.

The older son was in the field.
Laboring hard so that wheat it would yield
But when he happened to pass by the house
Where all had been quiet as a mouse
He heard music and dancing and asked, "What's going on?"
"Your brother's returned after he's been long gone."
Said the servants to him of the one who took half,
"And your father has killed the fattened calf."
The brother was angry and refused to go in.
So the father went out to plead with him.
But he answered his father, "I've been slaving for you
All of these years I do what you say I should do.
You never even gave me a goat to eat
With my friends for just a treat.
But when this son of yours has come
Who is really nothing but a bum
He's wasted what's yours on paying for whores
While I do nothing but carry out chores
Yet when he comes you receive him with glee"
"My son," the father said, "you are always with me,
All I have is yours, don't be mad.
But we had to celebrate and be glad.
This brother of yours once was dead
He didn't behave as he was bred
But now he lives, having returned
He was lost and is found and now he has learned
Of my love for him despite his behavior
I'll not condemn, but be his savior.



Jul 29,2015